Calcium in Arteries May Influence Heart Attack Risk

Patients without calcium buildup in their coronary arteries had a significantly lower risk of future heart attack or stroke despite other high risk factors such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or bad cholesterol levels, new research from University of Texas (UT) Southwestern cardiologists shows.

These individuals had less than a 3% chance of a cardiovascular event over the next decade—even though many had well-known risk factors—well below the 7.5% level set by the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association as a guideline to begin statin treatment.

"The event rates when coronary calcium is absent are low," says preventive cardiologist Parag Joshi, MD, an assistant professor of internal medicine at UT Southwestern. "Our findings suggest that individuals with no calcium buildup in their blood vessels may not have to take statins despite the presence of other risk factors that cause coronary disease."

There may be other reasons statins are a good therapy, so Joshi says the new findings suggest that adding a CT scan for calcium may be worthwhile as doctors and patients discuss treatment options.

"A CT scan is a test that is easily done, costs about $100 in most major cities, and can give a lot more information about the patient's 10-year risk," says Joshi, a fellow of the American College of Cardiology.

Calcium accumulates in the arteries of the heart after plaque builds up and calcifies over time.

The UT Southwestern researchers looked at CT scans of the chest and heart of 6,184 people aged 45 to 84 who had never had a heart attack or stroke and were participants in a large multisite, multiyear study known as MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).

About one-half of the participants showed no calcium deposits in their heart arteries, meaning they had a coronary artery calcium (CAC) score of zero.

However, a zero CAC score doesn't mean that no plaque is accumulating inside the heart's arteries or that the patient has zero risk; rather, it means that the patient's risk of a heart attack is lower than the threshold where doctors typically recommend statin treatment, Joshi says. A 5% risk, based on a calculation used by doctors that factors in age, sex, ethnicity, smoking, diabetes, high blood pressure, and cholesterol levels, is considered the low end for recommending statin use.

In addition, there may be an argument for starting statin treatment before there's evidence of calcium buildup if there are concerns the patient will develop a problem later because of factors such as family history, says Joshi, who's board certified in the use of coronary CT angiography, a state-of-the-art technology that provides a detailed look at the heart and related arteries. It's important to note that statins carry little risk and are inexpensive, he says.

"A CAC score can really add to the clinician-patient discussion over whether or not to start a statin for primary prevention of heart attacks and strokes," Joshi says.

— Source: UT Southwestern Medical Center